Evidence Synthesis

Focused and systematic reviews

Systematic reviews use a framework for synthesizing a body of all available evidence, to provide a more accurate answer to a specific clinical and public health research question. Bias is minimized in systematic reviews because of the combined sample sizes of multiple studies, increased representativeness across the globe, and may allow comparison of potential situations or conditions that may be relevant to a particular demographic (location, age, sex, clinical setting).



A meta-analysis combines effect estimates of a particular comparator such as medicines in interventional trials, or disease in observational studies. Combining effect estimates increases statistical power and reduces uncertainty. Reducing uncertainty also improves estimates of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness calculations.

Evidence Generation

Economic burden of disease

Burden of disease is traditionally measured using the frequency and distribution of diseases. However, decision-makers may be less familiar with the meaningfulness of some key epidemiologic figures. Using principles of health and economics, and frameworks that allow reasonable trade-offs between health gains and health investments, we can estimate in monetary terms how much the disease costs from the perspective of society, government, or healthcare payer, over a specified timeframe. Using a common metric such as economic burden allows for a common understanding of the disease, facilitating rational decision-making.

Evidence Generation

Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis

Economic evaluation is the process of measuring cost-effectiveness. An economic evaluation will measure two parameters—cost and outcome (effect). Limited resources mean not all funding requirements will be met, and decision-makers have to choose. Choosing one particular investment over the other could mean differences in future health and economic gains. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses provide evidence that explicitly shows which specific interventions can minimize economic losses or maximize net monetary gain.

Budget impact analysis

Budget impact analyses are increasingly being required by reimbursement agencies to assess the projected expenditures that new and existing technologies might create for the healthcare budget.


Costing involves valuing the economic cost of a healthcare intervention. A sound costing framework and methodology is one of the first steps toward more robust economic analyses. Depending on the perspective, costing can be made as broad as the society, or be more specific to the healthcare sector, payer, and patient.

Communication and training

HTA submission planning

We understand your need to make your products more accessible to the Filipino people. Our team helps you plan the requirements and guides you through this complex process.

Communication and Training

Value communication

We help you present the value of your products to stakeholders such as decision-makers, health payers, clinicians, and investors. We work with your team to assess and formulate vigorous health economic analyses, to clearly convey your products’ value.

Corporate lectures and training